Recommended Sample Sizes

The following recommendations are not requirements, they are general guidelines. We can analyze extremely small amounts of carbon in our Accelerator Mass Spectrometers (AMS). For minimum quantities, please contact us.

Individual sample size requirements vary. We always recommend that you choose the best samples for your research objectives. If you are concerned that your samples are too small then please contact us for advice.

The quantities listed below assume the material is dry, clean and free of adhering/associated matrix.

Click the material name to view additional charges (if any), sample selection, and lab pretreatment procedures.

Material Type AMS Dating
Recommended Sample Size 
Analyses Included
with C14 Dating
(if sample size permits)
Antler 1-4 grams δ13C, δ15N
Bones Depends on type of bone (non-heated, cremated) δ13C for all types + δ15N, %C, %N, and C:N (except cremated bones)
Charcoal 2-100 milligrams δ13C
Dung 5-100 milligrams δ13C
Fish Otolith 5-20 milligrams δ13C, δ18O
Freshwater for DOC extraction 500 mL, 5 mg as precipitate, 0.3 cc as CO2 gas δ13C
Forams (pre-extracted) 4-10 milligrams δ13C, δ18O
Hair 20-50 milligrams δ13C
Insect (chitin) 10-50 milligrams δ13C
Leather 50-100 milligrams δ13C
Lime mortar Please consult the laboratory. NA
Organic Sediment, Gyttja, Silty Peat 1-10 grams δ13C
Peat (fibrous) 3-100 milligrams δ13C
Phytoliths (extracted) 300 milligrams δ13C
Plants and Seeds 3-100 milligrams δ13C
Pollen (extracted) 20 milligrams if wet, 5-15 milligrams if dry δ13C
Pottery (charred food residue) 10-20 milligrams δ13C
Pteropods 5-100 milligrams δ13C, δ18O
Shell, Coral, CaCO3 5-100 milligrams δ13C, δ18O
Teeth 1-2 teeth δ13C, δ15N
Textile 10-20 milligrams δ13C
Water DIC as SrCO3 50 milligrams δ13C
Water for DIC extraction 250 milliliters-1 liter δ13C, δ18O, δ2H
Wood 3-100 milligrams δ13C

Pretreatment – It is important to understand the pretreatments that are going to be applied to samples since they directly affect the final result. If your samples are extremely small or fragile, we should discuss your pretreatment options prior to applying them to avoid excessive reduction in sample size. We also welcome your requests to contact you after the pretreatment to discuss your options for AMS dating.

Beta Analytic has removed cancellation and partial analysis fees (except solvent/cellulose extraction) for samples that are too small or do not provide adequate carbon for AMS dating.

Note – Fees are inclusive of d13C measurements using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS), quality assurance reports, calendar calibration when applicable, and 24/7 web access to past results and pending analyses. When samples are submitted for radiocarbon dating we also include at no extra charge d15N for non-cremated bones; d18O for carbonates; and d18O and d2H for groundwater.

Beta Analytic Sample Submission

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Recommended Packaging

Place large samples for radiocarbon analysis directly into ziplock bags. The bags will not contaminate the sample. Small samples or those with fine particles should be wrapped in aluminum foil to contain them in a pouch. Place each foil-wrapped pouch into a labeled ziplock bag.

Beta Analytic carbon dating samples packing recommendation

NOTE: Always handle ONLY one sample at a time. Begin and end the packaging process for each sample prior to beginning the next. This will best ensure mix-ups are avoided during packaging of samples.

We highly recommend sending your samples in small boxes whenever possible (instead of using envelopes) to protect the physical integrity of the samples during shipment. The equipment used by postal services typically run envelopes through rollers during the automated sorting process, and the small amount of pressure exerted during this process is enough to crush small fragments and powder them.

Shipping Recommendations

Payment Terms

Sample Handling Advice

Page last updated: September 2022